Copyright is so complex

Copyright  protects original expression such as literary works, letters, notes, software, dramatic works, choreography that is written or has been videotaped. I am learning about the “Idea/Expression Dichotomy” in my online class.  Ideas and facts are not copyrightable but naturally the expression of ideas is copyrightable material.  However, there is the “Doctrine of Merger”. if there is only one way or limited ways to express something, then there can be no copyright.

Students need to be aware of their rights. They actually own copyright of their essays and any other work they produce.  Educators can not display students’ essays or other work, for example, on a blog without their permission.  If the student is a minor then the parents would have to give permission. Only the creators of works have these rights: to make copies, distribute copies, perform works, display works in public, prepare derivative works based off the original. Copyright is intentionally a monopoly so that there is an incentive for creators to create. But, it does not last forever. One day all creative works enter into public domain. Rights owner may even release his or her work to public domain but there is no turning back; can’t change his or her mind afterwards.

Don’t forget employers own copyright of employees’ creative work done for the employer during the course of employment. This is “Work for Hire”. It is imperative to know what the institution’s position is, for example, will the institution allow the employee any rights over his or her course outlines?

The digital era we live in make copyright more complex. The doctrine of First Sale allows us to buy a book and resell it, lend it or otherwise dispose of it but not copy it. A publisher may stamp “Not for Resale” on books but this is not legally enforceable because of this First Sale doctrine. Digital resources are more complex because licenses and contracts may be involved.

MOOC on Copyright

I have started an interesting MOOC about copyright. The history of copyright is really interesting.  I found this interesting link on Common Copyright Errors. Copyright is automatic so there is no need to complete formalities such as register the copyrighted work unless the work has some financial or emotional value.  Protection covers works that are perceptible to the senses.  There are five questions to guide decisions on copyright protection. First, is the work protected under copyright or is it in the public domain?

This particular article about  5 C ommon Copyright Mistakes on Your Blog makes me nervous especially the section on Fair Use.

Reading about Knowledge

Definition of Knowledge: Knowledge “is intangible, boundaryless, and dynamic, and if it is not used in a specific time and a specific place, it is useless.” p. 54 of Knowledge Management: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management, vol 2 edited by Ikujiro Nonaka

The value of knowledge is in its use.

Explicit Knowledge: expressed in words and numbers, documented and shared

Tacit Knowledge/Implicit Knowledge (article by Dinker Raval, Bala Subramanian, and Bina Raval) : rooted in individual’s action and experiences, highly personal, difficult to articulate and share,  can be shared through conversation and storytelling , exchanged through joint activity (socialization) rather than verbal or written instructions,

  • technical dimension – personal skills or crafts
  • cognitive dimension/affective dimension – shapes how we see the world, beliefs, ideals, values

Transfer of implicit knowledge to explicit knowledge takes place in education, training, emails and other communication devices. individuals interact/engage, classify relationships, comprehend/internalize then act or add to their own tacit knowledge.

This is mostly what happens when we read fiction, we are adding to our implicit knowledge.

Knowledge Creation: a combination of explicit (books, notes) and tacit (experiences) knowledge that lead to creation of new knowledge.

Knowledge Creation in this article refers to a series of processes and activities that add value to an outcome such as a product, service or outcome.  It is a process as well as an output/outcome.  As an outcome it refers to generation of new ideas o objects that reflect enrichment of existing knowledge.  Channels of communication/mobile devices facilitate knowledge creation.

Steps in Knowledge Creation:

  1. Sharing tacit knowledge
  2. Creating concepts
  3. Justifying concepts
  4. Building a prototype
  5. Crossleveling

Knowledge Creation Activities:

  1. Problem-solving
  2. Brainstorming
  3. Programming
  4. Documenting

Activities in The Trilogy Model of Knowledge Creation slide 42 

  1. Observation and Orientation – Analyzing, Comparing, Synthesizing
  2. Adaptation and Absorption –  Making new strategies, Planning for action, Practicing new skills
  3. Manifestation and Substantiation – Demonstrating with facts and evidence

Knowledge Infrastructure Domains

  1. Explicit Knowledge Creation – Educational institutions, Academic and Professional Associations, Think Tanks
  2.  Implicit Knowledge Creation – Workshops, Collaborative Networks and blogs
  3. Knowledge Impartation –  Teaching, Training,  Continuing Education Programs, Mentoring Programs
  4. Knowledge Diffusion/Dissemination – Libraries, Broadband connectivity, Book clubs
  5. Global Knowledge Accessibility –  Access to global knowledge resources and intellectual capital
  6. Knowledge Evaluation and Quality Assurance– Circulation of knowledge/Availability of professional journals and peer evaluation

Definition of Knowledge Economy: An economy that is driven by research, ideas, innovations, and technical skills to generate high-impact economic benefits and high-wage jobs.

  • Conceptual Tools of Knowledge Economy:
  1. Knowledge Creation
  2. Entrepreneurship
  3. Talent
  4. Competitive advantage

 

Andrew Carnegie and Libraries

This is an interesting article on how Andrew Carnegie turned his fortune into a library legacy.   I saw four interesting facts about libraries in this article:

  1. The public library has traditionally been a place to use the bathroom and feed the brain.
  2. The public library in the United States has a history of being accessible to women, children and all races.
  3. Public libraries historically have been instruments of change.
  4. Libraries should offer services and tools that people need even cake pans.

New Librarianship Comments

New Librarianship Course

I have enjoyed this MOOC on New Librarianship. I wanted to learn what was new in librarianship.  I wanted to experience why MOOCs and online classes were seen as the future of education.  I was curious about online learning because one of the paraprofessionals in my library just completed her Bachelor’s in Business completely online through Georgia Southwestern University.

I found the Discussion Board in the course useful and overwhelming at the same time. So much information, so much intellectual chatter sometimes way over my head.

The course itself has been inspiring. I have a new perspective of myself as a Facilitator of conversation and knowledge not just facilitator of learning or facilitator of information. I have a new perspective of myself as a Power broker empowering “members” or participants in my library community to be creators of knowledge and not just consumers/users.  I have a new perspective of myself as Coordinator matching library members with resources which may include community resources, persons with expertise.

I can see where an empty room with only a librarian and a phone is still a library. The  librarian is a Connector and Coordinator not just the guard at a warehouse with books and computers, even though it feels that way sometimes.  The librarian needs the phone to communicate and connect people to other people and resources outside of the otherwise empty room.

Reading Fiction to Create Knowledge and Improve Society

In this article by Lane Wilkinson, the writer wonders about fiction. If the mission of librarians is to improve society by facilitating the creation of knowledge, how does reading fiction create knowledge in the community? Are people reading to create knowledge or are they reading for fun?

  • Fiction as a Catalyst for Knowledge Creation

Some people create new works from reading fiction.  There is a whole genre of fan fiction where the writers base their stories on other original works. Shane Peacock has created a whole set of Young Adult books, the Boy Sherlock Holmes series, based on Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes. I remember when Dan Brown wrote the Da Vinci Code, a whole set of books were written piggy backing on the Da Vinci Code, not all the writers of new works were fans of the Da Vinci Code, like this one.  There was a lot of discussion on television andwritings about Mary Magdalene as a result of Dan Brown’s controversial book. Here is sample on this link.

I would say I am creating explicit knowledge when I read fiction and act by documenting –  writing a book review or writing about the books I have read in my blog or even pinning and collating fiction books  I have read on Pinterest.  Am I really creating knowledge when I recommend the books I have read in a conversation with library community members? That sounds like just passing on information but it is creating implicit knowledge or adding to personal knowledge.

  • Knowledge Acquisition/Consumption/Discovery/Creation for Personal Knowledge

According to the Atlas of New Librarianship, constructivism as a theory says knowledge is created inside a person based on interpretation of experiences.  Following that thinking,  reading fiction and non fiction is about creating personal knowledge.

Personally, I think that I read fiction primarily for fun and happily acquire/consume/discover new knowledge  but I am also learning and creating personal knowledge in the process.  I like reading historical fiction because I get so much historical information about a particular period from it and  for me it is far more exciting than reading an actual history book. Reading the Matthew Shardlake series by C.J. Sansom has led me to read other books based on the same historical period such as The Crown and The Chalice by Nancy Bilyeau.

I am a fan of the Louise Penny murder mystery series.  I recall searching for Gregorian chants on the internet and listening to Gregorian chants on YouTube because of her latest book in the series, The Beautiful Mystery.  I was curious. I wanted to distinguish what was real and what was from the writer’s imagination. I was adding to my personal knowledge from multiple sources and learning.

Reading fiction does not always lead me to create knowledge to improve society.  It improves me.  It changes what I knew before. There is an internal dialog, learning, improvement in vocabulary but I do not necessarily read with the intention to apply what I learned  or to improve my community.

Approaching the library member

I have finally completed my first MOOC.  I am glad I participated and stayed to the end.

This final section had to do with one of Dave’s Soapbox topics, killing the concept of the library user as a consumer of information. This is because the” library user”  modifying (adding apps), manipulating, controlling the system is building a telecommunication environment.  R. David Lankes prefers “members” but also includes other terms: Participant, Creator, Prosumer.

We were introduced to Herb Simon’s concept of satisficing – members being satisfied with “good enough” when searching for information sources. This led to another of Dave’s Soapbox topics, that we should stop using the deficit model,treating the community’s deficits as problems in need of remediation – homelessness, poverty, low literacy- and should approach members by catering to their aspirations and motivating them to take action.  Community members are tired of being treated as inadequate and of being reminded of their limitations.